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Carpatho-Ukraine (1939)

Zakarpats'ka Ukrayina, Zakarpatskaya Ukraina, Zakarpatská Ukrajina, Kárpátalja

Last modified: 2011-07-08 by andrew weeks
Keywords: czechoslovakia | ruthenia | subcarpathian-ruthenia | carpatho-ukraine | ukraine |
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[Flag of Carpatho-Ukraine 1939] image by Mark Sensen


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Czechoslovakia consisted of a three parts - the third part being namely Subcarpathian-Ruthenia.
On 1 October Sudetenland (the Germanophone parts of Czech Rep.) was annexed by the Third Reich, while in November Poland annexed the Teschen area, and Hungary annexed some Magyarophone parts of Slovakia and Subcarpathian-Ruthenia. On 6 and 8 October 1938 Slovakia and Subcarpathian-Ruthenia respectively gained autonomy. On 14 March 1939 both declared their independence. The next day Germany annexed the remainder as the "Reichsprotektorat" Bohemia & Moravia, while Hungary annexed Subcarpathian-Ruthenia and some more parts of Slovakia. Carpatho-Ukraine (as it was known on its one day of independence) used a flag blue over yellow (so the Ukrainian colours!).
After WWII Czechoslovakia was restored on 9 may 1945, except for Carpatho-Ukraine which became part of the Transcarpathian Oblast in the Ukrainian SSR.
Mark Sensen, 2 July 1996

According to my soviet sources, the Transcarpathian Region was created in 22 January 1946 . My source doesn't refer any previous status for it as soviet territory.
Antonio Martins, 28 May 2000

"The First Constitutional Law of Carpatho-Ukraine" of 15 March 1939 defined the new status of the country as follows:

1. Carpatho-Ukraine is an independent state.
2. The name of the state is: Carpatho-Ukraine.
3. Carpatho-Ukraine is a republic, headed by a president elected by the Diet of Carpatho-Ukraine.
4. The state language of Carpatho-Ukraine is the Ukrainian language.
5. The colors of the national flag of the Carpatho-Ukraine are blue and yellow, blue on top and yellow on the bottom.
6. The state emblem of Carpatho-Ukraine is the present national emblem: a bear on a red field on the sinister side, four blue and three yellow stripes on the dexter side, as well as the trident of Saint Volodymyr the Great.
7. The national anthem of Carpatho-Ukraine is Sche ne vmerla Ukraina [Ukraine has not yet perished].
8. This act comes valid immediately after its promulgation.

Source: André Wocial: "Symbols of Carpatho-Ukraine", The Flag Bulletin, vol. 30, No. 4/142, p. 142.
Mark Sensen, 28 May 2000

This is the list of Carpatho-Ukrainian flags since 1918:
- Subcarpathian Russia (1920-1938), Transcarpathian Ukraine (1938), Carpatho-Ukraine (1938-1939) - horizontal bicolor BY used unofficially especially in late 1930's (C--/--)
- (Republic of) Carpatho-Ukraine (1939 hours) - horizontal bicolor BY (CSW/CSW)
Jan Zrzavy, 16 March 2001

The comments by Mark Sensen are not entirely correct. On March 15 1939 Hungary annexed by military force only the central and northern part of Subcarpathia, so the words "and some more parts of Slovakia" are erroneous. The southern part of Subcarpathia and the southern part of Slovakia which had ethnic Hungarian majority were annexed to Hungary by the First Vienna Treaty in 1938.
Ivan Marinov, 2 May 2001

Hungary had got the Hungarian lived southern parts of Slovakia and Subcarpathia in 1938 by the First Vienna Treaty (in Subcarpathia: Ungvár-Uzhhorod, Munkács-Mukachevo, Beregszász-Berehovo cities and environs). On March 15 1939 Hungary annexed the full territory of Subcarpathia to the Polish border and a 5-10 km wide stripe of East-Slovakia (for example Ublianka valley and Stakčín - Takcsány village). There were some small attacks between the Hungarian and Slovakia troops, afterwards Hungary ceded this territory. After the end of the WWII the original region border - Slovakia and Subcarpathia - became the new border between the Soviet Union and Czechoslovakia. The border was modified only the Hungarian lived territories - an approximately straight line divided a territory from the Tisza River to Uzhhorod and divided a village into two parts: Nagyszelmenc as Vel'ké Slemence to Czechoslovakia and Kisszelmenc as Mali Selmenci to the URSS.
István Molnár, 20 May 2001

I said the same thing: Hungary tried to annex this territory, but it did not annex it. You say "ceded", it means the Hungary did not keep this 5-10 km wide land stripe. I think the word annexation is something more then occupation. This small territory in Eastern Slovakia was occupied by Hungary for a few days, but it was never annexed. Only the northern and central part of the region called now Subcarpathia was annexed by military force (the southern part was also annexed, but not with military force, but peacefully).
Ivan Marinov, 21 May 2001

Slovakia ceded, Hungary ANNEXED this stripe. It was under Hungarian rule 1939-1944. Hungary occupied Subcarpathia (including the Slovakian stripe) in March 1939 and annexed on 23th June 1939 by the No. 6/1939 Act. The end of the military government on 7th July 1939.
István Molnár, 21 May 2001

Transcarpathian Ukraine or Carpatho-Ukraine name is in Ukrainian: Zakarpats'ka Ukrayina; in Russian: Zakarpatskaya Ukraina; in Czech: Zakarpatská Ukrajina: in Hungarian: Kárpát-Ukrajna. Sub-Carpathian Ukraine is in is in Ukrainian: Pidkarpats'ka Rus'; in Russian: Podkarpatskaya Rus; in Czech: Podkarpatská Rus.
Jarig Bakker, 24 September 2002

The using form of the Hungarian name of the territory was Kárpátalja. In 1920-1939 the following name was used: Ruszinszkó. The name "Kárpát-Ukrajna" used only the communist regime in Hungary.
István Molnár, 28 September 2002